Genetics[ edit ] Amyloid-beta precursor protein is an ancient and highly conserved protein. The side chains of the two histidine and one tyrosine residues that play a role in metal coordination are shown in the Cu I bound, Cu II bound, and unbound conformations, which differ by only small changes in orientation. The extracellular E2 domain, a dimeric coiled coil and one of the most highly conserved regions of the protein from Drosophila to humans. This domain, which resembles the structure of spectrinis thought to bind heparan gens apk proteoglycans.
The extracellular region, much larger than the intracellular region, is divided into the E1 and E2 domains, linked by an acidic domain AcD ; E1 contains two subdomains including a growth factor-like domain GFLD and a copper gens apk продолжение здесь CuBD interacting tightly together.
When APP molecules occupy a lipid raft region of membrane, they are more accessible to and differentially cleaved by beta secretase, whereas APP molecules outside a raft are differentially cleaved by the non-amyloidogenic alpha secretase. Synaptic formation and repair[ edit gens apk The most-substantiated role for APP is in synaptic formation and repair; gens apk its expression is upregulated during neuronal differentiation and after neural injury. Roles in cell signalinglong-term potentiationand cell adhesion have been proposed and supported by as-yet limited research. However, neuronal cell bodies contain less APP as a function of their смотрю, карты навител apk правы to amyloid plaques.
Somatic recombination[ edit ] In neurons of the human brainsomatic recombination occurs frequently in the gene that encodes APP. This is accomplished via fast anterograde transport. It has been found that APP can mediate interaction between cargo and kinesin game killer apk thus facilitate this transport. Specifically, a short peptide amino-acid sequence from the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminus is necessary for interaction with the motor protein. The control beads were not motile, which demonstrated that the terminal COOH moiety of peptides is not sufficient https://sophiarugby.com/fotografiya/nsys-test-apk.php gens apk transport.
One model suggests that APP acts to stabilize the iron efflux protein ferroportin in the plasma membrane of cells thereby gens apk the total number of ferroportin molecules at the membrane. These iron-transporters can then be activated by known mammalian ferroxidases i.